As stated in many other articles, to form a sentence you should put at least two components which are subject and verb. In Indonesian, the two main components are Subjek and Predikat. This predikat is consisted by Indonesian verbs. So it is basically the same. Predikat could be formed by a single verb, or a phrase. In this article, you are going to learn about Indonesian verb phrase but before that, let’s take a look about what are the types of predikat in Indonesian.
there are several types of verbs in Indonesian. the term that is used to describe verb in Indonesian is verba. Seen from different perspective, there are wide varieties of Verba in Indonesian. Looked from the form, there are two types: Root verb and Derivative verb; Looked from the subject, there are two types of verbs which are: active form and passive form; seen form the object, there are two types which are: transitive verb and intransitive verb; and the last some other forms. they are: benefactive, reflective, and reciprocal.
1. By form
- Root or base.
- Derivative verbs. This verb is formed by adding an affix or affixes in a word. The word could be a noun or an adjective.
2. By subject
- Active verbs. A sentence where the subject plays as subject.
- Passive verbs. A sentence where the subject plays as object.
3. By object
- Transitive verbs. This type of verb needs object.
- Intransitive verbs. This type of verb needs no object.
4. Other forms
- Benefactive verbs. This is used to show an action which is being done by someone else. The verb is usually added with prefix me-
- Reflective verbs. It is a verb that conveys an action that is applied to the actor itself.
- Reciprocal verbs. It is a verbs that commonly being done by two persons. It is usually initiated by “saling” means “done to each other” and the verb is added by prefix ber-.
Now let’s move to the types of verb phrase in Indonesian.
Phrase is defined as a combination of two or more word that only represents one function in a sentence. Thus a verb phrase is a combination of words that is used to represent the function of verb in a sentence.
In Indonesian there are three types of verb phrase. The first one is modificative verb phrase, the second is coordinative verb phrase, and the last is appositive verb phrase. Let’s us breakdown each one of the types of the verb phrase.
Modificative Verb Phrase
Modificative Verb Phrase is a verb phrase which is followed by an adjective that gives further meaning on the verb. For example: The phrase bekerja keras is composited from the verb bekerja meaning work and the adjective keras meaning hard. The verb “bekerja” is being added by “keras” to indicate that the actor is doing something with all that he/she can. Other examples of modificative verb phrase in the sentences are:
- Amir bekerja keras tanpa henti. (Amir works so hard non-stop.)
- Amar membaca buku dengan saksama. (Amar reads book thoroughly.)
- Adik menonton TV bersama Ayah. (My little brother watches TV with dad.)
- Pelaku memukul korban dengan menggunakan balok kayu. (The culprit hits the victim with a log.)
- Ibu memotong halus bawang merah. (My mother cut the onion smoothly.)
- Dia membelai lembut pipiku. (He lightly touches my cheek.)
- Aku pasti mendapatkan proyek itu. (I surely get that project.)
- Aku jadi ragu menegurnya. (I feel a hesitation to call him.)
- Dimas yakin memenangkan lomba balap motor itu. (Dimas is so sure that he will win the race.)
- Randi yakin meraih hasil maksimal dalam ujian semester kali ini. (Randy is pretty sure that he will get an outstanding score in this term test.)
Coordinative Verb Phrase
Coordinative Verb Phrase is a type of Indonesian verb phrase which consists of two verbs that is separated by and/or (dan or atau). This indicates that the actor in a sentence does both verbs, or only one of the verbs stated. For example: membaca dan menulis (reading and writing), bekerja atau berlibur (working or vacation). The implementations of this verb phrase in sentences are listed as follows:
- Adik sangat pandai dalam berhitung dan menulis. (My little brother is really good at math and writing.)
- Fahmi mampu bekerja kantoran dan bekerja sampingan sekaligus. (Fahmi could do an office job and a part time job simultaneously.)
- Aldi masih memikirkan dan merenungkan pilihannya. (Aldi is still thinking about the choice he should make.)
- Ayah masih menimbang dan mengukur keputusannya. (My dad is still thinking about his decision.)
- Bila sedang libur, Ayah biasanya mencuci mobil dan menyiram tanaman. (My father often wash car and watering the plant in his spare time.)
- Kani masih bingung antara mengambil cuti atau tetap bekerja. (We still in a brink of a decision whether to continue working or to take a day off.)
- Alfi masih memikirkan keputusannya untuk tetap bertahan atau mengundurkan diri. (Alfi is still hesitate whether to quit or to continue.)
- Jika libur sekolah, adik biasanya bermain bersama temannya atau membaca komik kesukaannya. (On the holiday, my little brother usually plays with his friends or reads comics as he like.)
- Untuk liburan kali ini, kita akan pergi ke pantai atau berkemah di perbukitan. (We will do a vacation to either a beach or a highland in this vacation time.)
- Aku masih ragu antara meneruskan sekolah ke jenjang S2 atau memilih bekerja sesuai dengan keahlian. (I still cannot decide whether to take a master degree or to get a work with my current skill.)
Appositive Verb Phrase
Appositive Verb Phrase is a verb phrase that is considered an addition in a sentence that give a detailed information regarding the subject. For example: Aceh —tempat dulu aku merantau— kini terkena badai Tsunami. (Aceh, the place that I had visited, is now destroyed by a tsunami.). It seems similar to the Appositive noun phrase, however there are verb that is employed within the phrase. The other examples are:
- Rumah kita —tempat bernaung dari panas dan hujan— telah resmi dijual. (Our house, a place where we hide from the weather, has been sold.)
- Yogya —tempat aku mencari nafkah— begitu istimewa di hatiku. (Jogja, the place where I worked, is so special to me.)
- Andi —temanku yang sering membantuku saat susah— kini telah tiada. (Andi, a friend who is always by my side, is now gone forever.)
These are the types Indonesian verb phrase and the example. You could find many examples in some other article such as newspaper or magazine. Hope this article helps you. Don’t forget to keep practicing because practice makes perfect.