How to Learn Indonesian Consonant – Formula and Examples
Indonesian language basically consist of two types of words. The first one, vowel. Vowel or “huruf hidup” in Bahasa consist of A, I, U, E, O. While the consonant, or “ huruf mati/konsonan” in Bahasa consist of the words beside the “huruf hidup”. It is important for you to learn the consonat in Bahasa Indonesia. It is because the pronunciation between Bahasa Indonesia and English is different. So, this article will help you to learn Indonesian Consonant.
How to pronounce the consonant in Bahasa Indonesia
The consonant alphabet in Bahasa Indonesia consist of 21 alphabet, those are b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, dan z. Please notice the example below for each consonant and the usage.
|Consonant||First Positon (of a word)||Middle Position||Last Position|
|b||Bahasa (Language)||Sebut (say)||Adab (culture)|
|c||Cakap (expert, handsome)||Kaca (mirror)||–|
|d||Dua (two)||Ada (available)||Abad (century)|
|f||Fakir (poor, indigent)||Kafan (shroud)||Maaf (sorry, apology)|
|g||Guna (usage, purpose)||Tiga (three)||Gudeg (food from Java)|
|h||Hari (day)||Saham (stock,holding)||Tuah (good luck)|
|j||Jalan ( walk, stroll)||Manja (spoil)||Mikraj (ascension)|
|k||Kami (we, us)||Paksa (force)||Politik (politic)|
|l||Lekas (hurry, quick, soon)||Alas (base, pad)||Akal (mind, sense)|
|m||Maka (then)||Kami (we, us)||Diam (silent, quiet)|
|n||Nama (name)||Tanah (soil, ground)||Daun (leaf)|
|p||Pasang (set, tide)||Apa (what)||Siap (ready)|
|r||Raih (achieve)||Bara (ember, fire)||Putar (turn, rotate)|
|s||Sampai (arrive, to, until)||Asli (original, native)||Tangkas (agile, competent)|
|t||Tali (rope, line, string)||Mata (eye)||Rapat (tight, meeting)|
|w||Wanita (women, lady, girl)||Hawa (eve, air, weather)||Takraw (ball)|
|y||Yakin (sure, certain, confident)||Payung (umbrella)||–|
|z||Zeni (engineers)||Lazim (common, prevalent, usual)||Juz (verse in Alqur’an)|
- Q and x are specially used for a person’s name (identity) and an educational usage. The x alphabet in the first position of a word is spelled (s).
- The 4 consonants (c,q,x, and y) is not used in the last position of any word in Bahasa Indonesia. The y consonant can be used in the last word, but in a combination with sy, for example arasy (throne)
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How to Learn Indonesian Consonant
Consonant classification based on the way of pronunciation or articulation as described below.
- consonant inhibited explosives (Stops, Plosives)
this is a consonants that occur with obstacles full of air currents. Then, the obstacle is released suddenly. Based on the place of articulation, the lethargic consonant is distinguished as follows.
- Bilabial lethargic consonants. This consonant occurs if the articulator is active, the lower lip and articulator passively the upper lip. Sound produced [p, b].
- The inhibition consonant is apiko-dental. This consonant occurs if the articulator activates the tip of the tongue and the articulator passively the upper teeth. Sound produced [t, d].
- Conjunctive inhibition of apiko-palatal letup. This consonant occurs if the articulator activates the tip of the tongue and the passive articulator of the hard ceiling (upper ceiling). Sound produced [t, d]. [t] is written th while [d] is written dh.
- Medio-palatal suppressed inhibition consonants. This consonant occurs if the articulator is active in the middle of the tongue and passive articulator of the hard ceiling. Sound produced [c, j].
- The consonant of the dorso-velar letup. This consonant occurs if the articulator activates the base of the tongue and passive articulator of the soft ceiling (lower ceiling). Sound produced [k, g].Consonant hamzah. This consonant occurs by pressing the one meeting against the other on the entire vocal cords, the soft palate along with the chubby child is pressed up so that the air flow is blocked for a while. Sound produced [? ]
- The Nasal (Sengau) consonant
Nasal consonants (nasal) are consonants that are formed by blocking tightly (closing) airways from the lungs through the nasal cavity. Along with that the soft palate along with the child of the pharynx is lowered so that the air comes out through the nasal cavity.
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Based on the place of articulation, the nasal consonants are distinguished as follows.
- Nasal bilabial consonants. This consonant occurs if the articulator is active, the lower lip and articulator passively the upper lip. Nasal produced [m].
- Medio-palatal nasal consonants. This consonant occurs if the articulator is active in the middle of the tongue and passive articulator hard ceiling. The resulting nasal is [ñ].
- Apico-alveolar nasal consonants. This consonant occurs if the articulator activates the tip of the tongue and passive articulator of the gum. The resulting nasal is [n].
- Dorso-velar nasal consonant. This consonant occurs when the articulator activates the base of the tongue and passive articulator of the soft palate. Nasal is given [h].
- Alloy consonants (i test) The alloy consonants are special type consonant blocks. The place of articulation is the tip of the tongue and the back gum. Sound produced by [ts, d5]. The sound [ts] is written ch while the sound [d5] is written with.
- Side consonants (te ls)
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A side consonant is formed by closing the air currents in the middle of the oral cavity so that air exits through both sides or just a side. The place of articulation of the tip of the tongue with the gum. Sound produced [I]. Well, that’s how to learn Indonesian consonant!