Before learning Indonesia language we have to know the morphology of Indonesia language. As we have known, morphology is a study and description of word formation in language. Just like the other language, Indonesia language also have it own morphology to organize their sentence. Here is morphology of Indonesia language that you should know.
Word Formation in Bahasa
Before we learn about the Indonesian word formation, we should know that there is words that called root words or the base form of a word.
Example : tulis (write), makan (eat), etc. In a word formation people used to add something in the beginning or the end of the words, those thing called affix.
There is two kind of affix, it is Indonesia prefix table and Indonesian Suffix:
1. Indonesian Prefixes – the alphabet or a group of alphabet that is put in the beginning of a word. After we add the prefix the sentence will become an active or passive word, we also can use prefix for person or things.
- Active : ex ; me- in menulis (write) – Saya menulis novel (I write novel)
- Passive : ex; di- in ditulis (writen) – Novel itu ditulis oleh saya (That novel is writen by me)
- Person : ex; pe- in penulis (author)
2. Indonesian Suffixes – the alphabet or a group of alphabet that is put in the end of a word.
- Can be use to indicate abbreviation and possession of informal singular pronouns only. Ex ; -ku, -mu, -nya, those suffix can be use to claim something [like yours (punyamu), mine (milikku) and his or her (miliknya)]
- Suffix also can change word classes. Ex ; makan (eat) to makanan (food), in makanan we add suffix (-an)
To make a good sentence we should organize the words based on their own part. In Indonesia we call it S-P-O-K (Subjek – Predikat – Objek – Keterangan) or in English we call it Subject (S) – Verb (V) – Object (O) – Time or place (I).
- Subject – subject is the person or someone that doing something in the sentences, in Indonesia language we put the subject at the beginning of the sentence. Example ; aku (I), ibu(mom), ayah (dad), mereka (they) , lelaki itu (he).
- Indonesian Verb – Verb is the word that defined the activity that person is doing. In Indonesia language we put the verb after the subject. Example ; kerja (work), makan (eat), jalan (work). But don’t forget that sometimes we have to change the verb based on the sentences, like sometimes we have to change jalan to berjalan (walk to walking) based on the purpose of the sentence.
- Object – Object is the word that is known as something that being affected by the action of the subject. In Indonesia language we put the object after the verb because the object is affected by the action (verb). Example; makanan (food), anjing (dog), etc.
- Time and place – In Indonesia language we call time or place in the sentences as keterangan (information). In Indonesia language we put the time and place in the first place because it shows the information of the whole sentence, like where and when it happen.
As a whole sentence, we can see the structure of sentence like this :
Saya (S) sedang makan (P) nasi (O) di rumah (K)
I’m (S) eating (V) rice (O) at home (I)
That’s all about the morphology of Indonesia Language, now you can start to make your own sentence in Indonesia!