9 Types of Adjunct in Indonesian – Structures – Examples

Bahasa Indonesia is known as one of the easiest language to learn. There is no complex grammatical rule and learning Indonesian alphabets is also easy. Even though it is easy to learn, you need to know that there are some types of words in Bahasa Indonesia. The word classes used for everyday conversation include noun, adverb, adjective, preposition, adjunct, and so on. In this article we are going to talk about adjunct in Indonesia. Find out more about ways to learn Indonesian grammar structures for beginners.

Adjunct or kata keterangan is an adverb added to a sentence following the clause flow. The main use of adjunct is to add information about the previous words such as adjective, verb, and the like but not explaining about pronoun. Adjunct words are identified from the characteristic of being additive or restrictive.

It can be additive because it adds information of certain words as well as be restrictive for giving limitation in certain context. Below are some examples of adjunct in Indonesian. Learn more about Indonesian verb prefixes Phonology.

1. Adjunct of frequency

Adjunct of frequency explains habits or how often. It usually uses the words of selalu (always), jarang (rarely), and the like to explain frequency of doing something. Take a look at the examples of Adjunct in Indonesian.

Dia selalu mengeluh tanpa sebab

(She always complains without reason)

‘Always’ is the adjunct of frequency which explains someone habit
Pengusaha itu jarang pulang ke rumah

(That businessman rarely comes home)

Adjunct ‘rarely’ explain the adverbial of ‘comes home’

2. Adjunct of time

This class of adjunct is used to explain times about what is happening. It uses adverb of time to explain the events such as today (hari ini), yesterday (kemarin), tomorrow (besok), the day after tomorrow (lusa), at (pada), and much more. Here are the examples:

Para pekerja mulai bekerja pukul 10.00

(the workers start working at 10.00)

Pukul 10.00 is the adjunct of time
Pabrik itu telah ditutup sejak tahun 2000 (The factory has closed since 2000) Adjunct since explains the verb ‘has closed’

3. Adjunct of modality

Adjunct of modality explains expectation or probability of something. It uses the word barangkali (probably), mungkin (maybe), and such. Adjunct of modality also explains certainty in a sentence. Take a look at examples below.

Sari tidak menghadiri kelas hari ini, mungkin dia sedang pulang kampung

(Sari did not come to class today, maybe she went to her hometown)

Adjunct ‘mungkin’ explains the probability why Sari did not come to class.
Dia barangkali akan ingat untuk mengirim buku catatannya.

(He will probably remember to send me the notes)

Adjunct ‘probably’ explains the verbs ‘will’.

4. Adjunct of duration

This type of adjunct explains the duration of events. The common adjunction of duration includes saat (when), lama sekali (for a long time), sudah (have had) and so on. Here are the examples of adjunct of duration.

Andi tidur lama sekali

(Andi slept for a long time)

The adjunct ‘lama sekali’ explains the duration when sleeping.
Seminar akan segera dimulai dalam 30 menit

The seminar will be started in 30 minutes)

The adjunct ‘dalam’ explains the verb started.

5. Adjunct of place

Adjunct of place explains the place of events. It adds additional explanations of place for certain events or activity. The characteristic of this adjunct is the use of dari (from), di (in/at), ke (to), and so on. Adjunct of place can also be used to explain direction. Have a look at examples below.

Mereka sarapan di rumah setiap minggu

(They have breakfast at home every Sunday)

‘Di rumah’ explains the place where they have breakfast every Sunday.
Saya suka apartemen yang menghadap ke barat

(I like apartment facing the west)

Adjunct ‘ke barat’ explains the verb ‘facing’.

6. Adjunct of addition

This type of adjunct is classified into focusing adverb such as juga (also), lainnya (another), pula (as well), and the like. Adjunct of addition is added to extent the context of a sentence with additional information. Have a look at examples below.

Saya memakai kacamata, kamu juga memakai kacamata.

(I wear glasses and so are you)

The adjunct ‘juga’ or ‘so’ explains that the other person is wearing glasses.
Ibu saya juga membeli tas yang sama

(My mother also bought the same purse)

‘Juga’ is the additive adjunct to the verb ‘bought’.

7. Limiting adjunct

Limiting adjunct has the characteristic to limiting certain events. It uses the words cuma/hanya (only), kecuali (except), and so on. As this adjunct limits certain events, it is included in focusing adverb. Take a look at the examples.

Saya tidak membeli, hanya melihat-lihat di toko itu.

(I only looked around in that shop, not buying anything.

The word ‘hanya’ limiting the activity look around. It emphasize that I do not have the intention to buy.
Dia cuma memberinya sepotong kue

(She only gave him a piece of cake)

The adjunct ‘cuma’ restricts the verb ‘gave’.

8. Adjunction of degree

Adjunction of degree is used to emphasize the degree or quality according to the context. It is usually characterized with words such as sebanyak-banyaknya (as much as), sangat (very), and so on.

Cuaca sangat panas dan lembab

(the weather is very hot and humid)

The adjunct ‘sangat’ explains the weather which is hot and humid
Bos besar menaikkan gajiku sebanyak dua kali lipat.

(Big boss increased my fee twice as much)

The word ‘sebanyak’ explains the fee increase.

9. Adjunct of manner

Adjunct of manner is divided into two categories. It uses to explain how something happens and also the tools/equipment for doing it. Take a look at below examples.

Saya meletakkan komputer dengan hati-hati

(I put the computer very carefully)

The adjunct ‘carefully’ explains the verb ‘put’
Ibu memanggang roti dengan oven yang besar

Mother bakes the bread using huge oven.

‘Dengan’ is the adjunct of the verb ‘bakes’.

The adjunct in Indonesia is used to add explanation of a word in sentence. It classified into some categories according to the function. Learn more about Indonesian pronunciation guide and Morphology of Indonesian language and structure.