Learn Indonesian Affixes from The Experts

Hello again! Selamat datang di MasteringBahasa! A place for fellow travelers or visitors that want to have nice conversation in Indonesian language! This article is focused for you to learn Indonesian Affixes!

In MasteringBahasa, we have discussed about Indonesian Verbs and Indonesian Nouns. But as in English, there are Affixes that can accompany verbs and nouns. In Indonesian language, we say “Affixes” as “Imbuhan”. As what “Affixes” functions are, “Imbuhan” are used to convert a certain word into other word types. So it will be like, you can convert a noun into a verb, or a verb into an adjective! A nice example  for Indonesian Affixes is,

Makan (verb: (to) Eat) + a suffix of -anMakanan (noun: Food)

Surprise, surprise! That is not a magic. In linguistics, affixes are parts of words. In linguistics, the science of languages, there are three affixes types:

  1. Prefixes, affixes that is put in the front of a word.
  2. Infixes, affixes that is put inside a word.
  3. Suffixes, affixes that is put after a word.

If you are or have been in Indonesia, you might know that there are many languages and dialects in, which we often call them “Bahasa Daerah” (Local Languages). Some local languages, for examples, Sundanese in West Java has prefixes, infixes, and suffixes. But we are not going to talk about them. Why? Hence, this is MasteringBahasa site! Anyway, In Indonesian language, there are two kind of Indonesian affixes: prefixes and suffixes.

Affixes in Indonesian- Prefixes

Here is a list of Indonesian affixes which includes Prefixes!

Number[/th][th]Indonesian Affixes[/th] [th]To be used in order —

1[/td][td]Di -[/td] [td]To mention something is being done

2[/td][td]Me -[/td] [td]To do something

[/td][td]Me -[/td] [td]To change something

[/td][td]Me -[/td] [td]To work with something

[/td][td]Me -[/td] [td]To act as something

3[/td][td]Pe -[/td] [td]To mention someone’s job

[/td][td]Pe -[/td] [td]To mention tools

[/td][td]Pe -[/td] [td]To mention someone’s characteristic

[/td][td]Pe -[/td] [td]To mention someone’s job

4[/td][td]Ber -[/td] [td]To mention someone has something/someone

[/td][td]Ber -[/td] [td]To mention someone is wearing something

[/td][td]Ber -[/td] [td]To mention someone is doing something

[/td][td]Ber -[/td] [td]To mention someone’s current activity

5[/td][td]Per -[/td] [td]To make something into something else

6[/td][td]Ter -[/td] [td]To mention “the most”

[/td][td]Ter -[/td] [td]To mention conditions

[/td][td]Ter -[/td] [td]To mention something is done carelessly

7[/td][td]Ke -[/td] [td]To mention something in order

[/td][td]Ke -[/td] [td]To mention something in group

[/td][td]Ke -[/td] [td]To mention someone’s position

Here are the examples of Indonesian Prefixes mentioned above!

1. Di – : To mention something is being done

  • Di + makan (eat) = Dimakan (being eaten)
    Roti itu dimakan Bobby. (The bread is being eaten by Bobby)
  • Di + tendang (kick) = Ditendang (being kicked)
    Bola sepak ditendang oleh para pemain. (Soccer Ball is being kicked by the players)

2. Me – : To do something

  • Me- + Tari (dance) = Menari (to dance)
    Ayu menari dengan sangat indah. (Ayu dances beautifully)
  • Me- + Makan (eat) = Memakan (to eat)
    Bobby memakan roti yang ditinggalkan oleh Susi. (Bobby is eating bread that Susi had left)
  • Me- + Cuci (wash) = Mencuci (to wash)
    Laras lupa untuk mencuci piring di dapur. (Laras forgot to wash dishes in the kitchen)

3. Me – : To change something

  • Riko meninggi setelah menikmati liburan kenaikan kelas. (Riko is getting taller after enjoying the end year vacation)
  • Me- + Tua (old) = Menua (get older)
    Ibu Guru Kartini terlihat menua setelah aku lulus dari SMA. (Kartini teacher is getting older after I graduated from High School.)

4. Me – : To work with something

  • Me- + Kunci (key) = Mengunci (to lock)
    Metsy lupa untuk mengunci apartemennya sebelum berangkat ke kampus. (Metsy forgot to lock her apartment room before going to campus)
  • Me- + Sisir (Comb) = Menyisir (to comb)
    Hanna jarang menyisir rambutnya yang keriting. (Hanna seldom combing her curly hair)

5. Pe – : To mention someone’s job

  • Pe- + Ajar (to teach) = Pengajar (teacher)
    Cita-citaku adalah menjadi seorang pengajar. (My aim is to be a teacher)
  • Pe – + Terjemah (translating) = Penerjemah (Translator)
    Setelah lulus, Ratu menjadi seorang penerjemah. (After graduated, Ratu became a Translator.)
  • Pe- + Dagang (sell) = Pedagang (Seller)
    Ayah Nino adalah seorang pedagang sayur-sayuran di pasar tradisional. (Nino’s father is a vegetables’ seller in a traditional market.)

6. Pe – : To mention tools

  • Pe- + Hangat (warm) = Penghangat (Warmer)
    Penghangat ruangan di rumah tidak berfungsi padahal ini adalah musim hujan. (The room warmer in my house
  • Pe- + Giling (grind) = Penggiling (Grinder)
    Ibu menggunakan penggiling untuk melumatkan daging. (My mother use the grinder to pulverized meat)

8. Pe – : To mention someone’s characteristic

  • Pe- + Marah (Angry) = Pemarah (an Angry person)
    Rudy sungguh seorang pemarah. Dia membentak Betsy hanya karena Betsy lupa mengembalikan pensilnya. (Rudy is such an angry person. He snaps Betsy just because she forgot to return his pencil.)
  • Pe- + Maaf (Forgive) = Pemaaf (a person that forgives easily)
    Lain dari Rudy, Budi adalah seorang pemaaf. Dia memaafkan Nina yang memecahkan mugnya. (Different than Rudi, Budi is such a forgiveful person. He forgives Nina who broke his mug.)

9. Ber – : To mention someone has something/someone

  • Ber- + Uang (money) = Beruang (has money)
    Karena bekerja sebagai boss sebuah bank, ayah Joko adalah seorang yang beruang. (Because he works as a boss in a bank, Joko’s father is a person that has lots of money)
  • Ber- + Rambut (hair) = Berambut (a person that has hair)
    Kita dengan mudah untuk mengenali Johnson yang adalah murid pindahan dari Amerika karena ia berambut pirang. (We can easily spot Johnson who is a transfer student from America since he has blonde hair.)

10. Ber – : To mention someone is wearing something

  • Ber- + Baju (clothes) = Berbaju (wearing clothes)
    Lisa sering berbaju batik apabila diundang ke pernikahan temannya. (Lisa often wears Batik if she is invited to her friend’s wedding.)
  • Ber- + Kacamata (glasses) = Berkacamata (wearing glasses)
    Ridwan adalah mahasiswa berkacamata. (Ridwan is a college student who wears glasses)
  • Ber- + Jaket (jacket) = Berjaket (wearing jacket)
    Karena sekarang adalah musim hujan dan suhu di luar ruangan menjadi sangat dingin, otoritas sekolah memperbolehkan siswa untuk berjaket di lingkungan sekolah. (Since it is rainy season and the temperature outside the room is very cold, school’s authority lets students to wear jacket in the school environment.)

11. Ber – : To mention someone is doing something

  • Ber- + Main (play) = Bermain (playing)
    Adik belum pulang. Mungkin ia masih bermain dengan para tetangga baru. (My sister has not came home yet. Probably she is still playing with our new neighbors.)
  • Ber- + Bicara (talk) = Berbicara (talking)
    Ibu dan para ibu lainnya tengah berbicara mengenai masa depan anak-anak mereka. (My mother and other mothers are talking about their children’s future.)

12. Per – : To make something into something else

  • Per- + Tajam (sharp) = Pertajam (sharpen)
    Tukang jagal harus pertajam  pisaunya yang sudah tumpul. (The butcher has to sharpen his knife as it is blunt.)

13. Ter – : To mention “the most”

  • Ter- + Baik (Good) = Terbaik (Best)
    Kopi buatan warung pak Gundul adalah yang terbaik. (Coffees in warung Pak Gundul is the best)
  • Ter- + Pintar (Smart) = Terpintar (smartest)
    Jeremy adalah murid terpintar di sekolah negeri ini. (Jeremy is the smartest in this public school.)

14. Ter – : To mention conditions

  • Ter- + Tutup (Close) = Tertutup (closed)
    Rumah tertutup itu terlihat angker. (That closed house looks haunted)

15. Ter – : To mention something is done carelessly

  • Ter- + Bawa (bring) = Terbawa (brought without any intention)
    Saya tidak bisa menemukan kunci motor saya. Pasti terbawa ibu secara tidak sengaja. (I can’t find my motorcycle’s key. Perhaps it is brought my mother without her notice it.)

16. Ke – : To mention something in order

  • Ke- + dua (two) = Kedua (Second)
  • Ke- + tiga (three) = Ketiga (Third)
  • Ke- + empat (four) = Keempat (Fourth)
    And so on. You can find numbers in Indonesian language right here: Basic Indonesian Vocabularies

17. Ke – : To mention someone’s position

Ke- + Tua (old, lead) = Ketua (leader)
Kami memilih Savio untuk menjadi ketua kelas. (We have chosen Savio as our class leader)

Well, you may also wanna learn it for Indonesian Common Phrases and Sentences Now, we are moving to Indonesian affixes which is Suffixes!

Affixes in Indonesian – Suffixes

Here is a list of Indonesian affixes which includes Suffixes!

Number[/th] [th]Indonesian Affixes[/th] [th]To be used as

1. [/td] [td]-i[/td] [td]To do something over and over

[/td] [td]-i[/td] [td]To make it true

[/td] [td]-i[/td] [td]To do something with an object

[/td] [td]-i[/td] [td]To love something

[/td] [td]-i[/td] [td]To add with something

2. [/td] [td]-an[/td] [td]Makes a verb into a noun

[/td] [td]-an[/td] [td]To do something over and over

3.[/td] [td]-kan[/td] [td]Creates another verb

[/td] [td]-kan[/td] [td]To move something

[/td] [td]-kan[/td] [td]To do something for other people.

Here are the examples of those Indonesian Suffixes:

1. -i: To do something over and over.

  • Pukul (punch) + -i = Pukuli (Punching)
    Entah kenapa Sekar terus-terusan pukuli bantal dia. Mungkin ia sedang marah. (I don’t know why Sekar keeps punching her pillow. Probably she is angry)

2. -i: To make it true

  • Marah (Angry) + -i = Marahi (Angry at)
    Karena Riko memecahkan vas pak Guru, pak Guru marahi ia sekarang! (Since Riko broke teacher’s vase, the teacher has to angry at him!)
  • Kirim (to send) + -i = Kirimi (to send it for someone)
    Tolong kirimi saya skripsi final kamu lewat e-mail. (Please send me your final thesis to my e-mail)

3. -i: To do something with an object

  • Duduk (sit) + -i = Duduki (to sit at)
    Hei kamu! Seorang siswi dilarang untuk duduki meja seperti itu! (Hey, you! A female student is forbidden to sit on the desk like that!)
  • Sendok (spoon) + -i = Sendoki (to take a spoonful of)
    Tolong sendoki es krim untuk adikmu! (Please take a spoon of ice cream for your sister!)
  • Tidur (sleep) + -i = Tiduri (to sleep at)
    Tolong jangan tiduri kasur yang belum diganti spreinya. (Please don’t sleep on the bed which I have not change the cover)

4. -i: To love something

  • Hormat (respect)+ -i = Hormati (to respect at)
    Kita harus hormati orang tua kita yang telah membesarkan kita. (We have to respect our parents who have nurture us)
  • Sayang (love) + -i = Sayangi (to love at)
    Orang tua wajib untuk sayangi anak-anaknya, sebab apabila mereka sudah dewasa, tidak ada lagi yang bisa orang tua sayangi. (Parents have to love their children since, when they all have grown up, there is no one that parents can love again.)

5. -i: To add with something

  • Garam (salt) + -i: Garami (to add salt)
    Sup ini kurang asin. Mungkin saya lupa garami. (This soup is not that salty. Perhaps I forgot to put salt in it)
  • Kecap (soy sauce) + -i = Kecapi (to add soy sauce)
    Tolong kecapi sate itu sebelum menyajikannya. (please pour soy sauce to the satays before serving it)

6. -an: Makes a verb into a noun

  • Makan (eat) + -an = Makanan (food)
    Makanan  di resepsi pernikahan Lastri sungguh melimpah. (Foods in Lastri’s wedding reception is so many)
  • Minum (drink) + -an = minuman (drink)
    Kami menyajikan minuman berupa jus jeruk untuk para petinggi yayasan. (We serve drinks which are orange juice to our organisation’s leader)

7. -an: To do something over and over

  • Putar (spin) + -an = Putaran (spins)
    Kamu bisa mengeringkan pakaian dengan melakukan putaran pada mesin cuci. (You can dry your clothes by spinning them in the laundry machine.)

8. -kan: Creates another verb

  • Bersih (clean) + -kan = Bersihkan (to clean up)
    Kami harus bersihkan kotoran di ruangan kelas sebelum guru datang. (We have to clean up our classroom before the teacher comes)
  • Tulis (write) + -kan =Tuliskan (to write up)
    Karena Heli tidak menggunakan kacamatanya, ia meminta Sally untuk tuliskan materi pelajaran.

9. -kan: To move something

  • Geser (move) + -kan = Geserkan (to move)
    Ayah meminta Adi untuk geserkan lemari. (Our father asked Adi to move the cupboard)
  • Singkir (to put away) + -kan = Singkirkan (to put away)
    Tolong singkirkan kain kotor itu. Itu membuatku jijik. (Please put the dirty cloth away. It makes me feel disgusted)

10. -kan: To do something for other people

  • Ambil (take) + -kan = Ambilkan (to take)
    Kepala sekolah meminta bu Guru Lusi untuk ambilkan map berisi data siswa. (The head master asked mrs. Lusi to take a map of students’ data)
  • Tuang (pour) + -kan = Tuangkan (to pour)
    Ibu meminta adik untuk tuangkan teh ke cangkir. (Mother asked my sister to pour tea into cups.)

And we have reached the end of this article about Indonesian Affixes! You can learn more articles in MasteringBahasa! If you need to learn more about conversation, you can check Indonesian Conversation Phrases. Thank you so-so much to be with MasteringBahasa! Please kindly share this article to your Twitter, Facebook, and Google+ accounts so your friends can master Indonesian language too! Stay tune in our page! Terima kasih! Sampai Jumpa!

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