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Indonesian Grammar Exercise – Formula – Example

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Bahasa Indonesia is considered as a language with no complex grammatical rules. There is no verbs changing, words gender differences, and the like. It should be pretty easy to learn Indonesian grammar. Learning Indonesian grammar is important to construct Indonesian sentence. Also learn more about Indonesian sentence structure.


Indonesian Sentence Construction

Indonesian sentence construction can be classified into three types which are active, passive, negative, and question sentence. In general, Indonesian sentences consist of subject, verbs (predikat), and object. It is quite similar to English sentence formation, right?

1. Active sentence

In English, active sentence is quite similar to direct speech. Active sentence means the subject doing actions (verb). In general, active sentence is classified into two which are transitive and intransitive.

  • Kalimat aktif transitif (transitive active sentence)

To make transitive active sentence, there should be object included. Take a look at below examples.

Transitive Active SentenceEnglish translate
Asep menangkap bolaAsep catches the ball
Ferdi memperbaiki sepedaFerdi fixes the bike
Dian memasak nasiDian cooks rice
    • You may also read about

Indonesian Active and Passive Sentence

    with Examples
  • Kalimat aktif intransitif (intransitive active sentence)

Intransitive active sentence is the type of sentence which does not require object. The sentence stands on its own even without objects. One thing differentiate between transitive and intransitive sentence is transitive active sentence cannot be changed into passive sentence.

Intransitive active sentenceEnglish translate
Agus berlariAgus runs
Desi menangisDesi cries
Ayah sedang tidurDaddy is sleeping

You may also read about Indonesian Sentence Construction

2. Passive sentence

As the name suggest, passive sentence is the opposite of active sentence. A sentence considered as passive when the subject is burdened with activity. In general, passive sentence is classified into two types which are transitive and intransitive. The explanation between transitive and intransitive in passive sentence is more or less similar to the active sentence above. The characteristic of passive voice is it uses prefix di- in the verbs.

  • Kalimat pasif transitif (transitive passive sentence)

A sentence is called transitive passive sentence when it has object.

Transitive passive sentenceEnglish translate
Tas itu dibawa RiniThe bag is carried by Rini
Ruang aula sedang dibersihkan oleh siswaThe hall is being cleaned by students
Sepeda milik Doni Diperbaiki AyahnyaDoni’s bicycle is fixed by his father
Kue itu dimakan ibuThe cake is eaten by mother

You may also read about  Indonesian Phrases and Common Sentences

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  • Kalimat pasif intransitif (intransitive passive voice)

This type of sentence does not employ object as part of the sentence. Also learn Indonesian descriptive words.

Intransitive passive sentenceEnglish translate
Rumah itu sedang diperbaikiThe house is being fixed
Andi tersesat di hutanAndi is lost in the forest
Sampah itu segera dibuangThe trash is soon thrown out

Let’s learn more about Indonesian grammar exercise with us here.

3. Question sentence

There are some ways to construct question sentence. The basic way is to use question words such as apa (what), kapan (when), siapa (who), dimana (where), bagaimana (how), and mengapa (why). In informal way, you can simply add question mark without changing the structure of the sentence. See below example.

Question sentenceEnglish translate
Apa kamu mau makan? (formal)

Kamu mau makan?(informal)

Kamu mau makan, tidak? (informal)

Do you want to eat?

You want to eat?

You want to eat, don’t you?

Siapa nama kamu? (formal)

Nama kamu siapa? (informal)

What is your name?

You name is?

Apa yang kamu bawa? (formal)

Kamu bawa apa?

What do you bring?

What do you bring

Kamu sudah mandi? (informal)

Apakah kamu sudah mandi? (formal)

Have you taken a bath?

Have you taken a bath?

Dimana kantor kamu? (formal)Where is your office?

You may also read about Indonesian Reading Practice

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Negative sentence

Negative sentence is used to refuse something. There are two words which are used to construct negative sentence. The first is ‘tidak’ for formal use and ‘enggak’ for informal use. Some people may also use ‘tak’ as a short type of ‘tidak’ and ‘gak’ as short type of ‘enggak’.

Indonesian negative sentenceEnglish translation
Dia tidak mau makan

Dia tak mau makan

Dia enggak mau makan

He does not want to eat

He does not want to eat

He does not want to eat

Ibu enggak pakai MSG saat memasakMom does not use MSG when cooking
Tak mungkin dia akan datang ke pestaThere is no way he would come to the party
Ani gak mau pakai sepatu merahAni does not want to wear the red shoes

That’s all  about Indonesian grammar exercise.

Indonesian Words Formation

Indonesian words are quite different from English in terms of structure. This is because there is no verb change, but it uses prefix, suffix, and infixes. Prefix is used in front of root words, while suffix is used in the end of root words, and infixes are used in the middle of root words. The addition of prefix, suffix, and infixes changes the meaning of root words and constructs a completely different word. For example:

Root wordsPrefix/infix/suffixWordsMeaning
Tari (to dance)Prefix me-MenariDancing
Getar (vibrate)Infix –em-GemetarTremble
Makan (eat)Suffix –anMakananFood

In some cases, a root words can employ the combination of prefix, infixes, and suffix. Every addition of Indonesian prefix, infix, suffix, or combination of it results in different meaning of the root words. Learn more about Indonesian infixes and Indonesian affix.

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Kategori : Grammar