8 Indonesian Part of Speech – Formula – Examples

Apa kabar semuanya? How are you, everyone? Welcome back to MasteringBahasa! Not the first but the best site to learn Indonesian language quickly and easily by your own! We help you to master Indonesian language in days. Today’s lesson is Indonesian Part of Speech.

As a quick overview, there are eight part of speech in any language:

  1. Nomina (Nouns)
    It used to refers someone or something as an object
  2. Pronomina (Pronouns)
    It used to refers someone or something as a subject. It works as a replacement of a noun too. That is why it has a morfem of noun, hehe.
  3. Ajektiva, Kata Sifat (Adjectives)
    It works as a bridge to connect the ideas in a sentence.
  4. Verba, Kata Kerja (Verbs)
    Every linguist agree that verb is the most important part in a sentence. Without this, a sentence is meaningless. It shows an action or a state of nouns and pronouns.
  5. Adverbia  (Adverb)
    This is a twin of adjective. It works to describe adjective, verb, or other adverbs.
  6. Preposisi (Preposition)
    It works to befriend verb or noun to describe location or time.
  7. Konjungsi (Conjunctions)
    It works to connect words, clauses, sentences, or paragraphs.
  8. Interjeksi, Kata Seruan (Interjection)
    This is the most optional part. It shows as an expression.

Some of those parts already has been explained by MasteringBahasa. Now let’s begin the course!

1. Noun

We have discussed about Indonesian nouns in Indonesian Nouns and How to Learn Indonesian Grammar Structures. You can check them out! If you had already learned them, then let’s have a quick overview about nouns!

Nomina[/th] [th]Noun

Makanan[/td] [td]Food

Minuman[/td] [td]Drink

Pensil[/td] [td]Pencil

Pulpen[/td] [td]Pen

Komputer[/td] [td]Computer

Ponsel[/td] [td]Phone

Buku[/td] [td]Book

Koran[/td] [td]Newspaper

Majalah[/td] [td]Magazine

Kasur[/td] [td]Bed

Kaos[/td] [td]T-shirt

Jaket[/td] [td]Jacket

Kacamata[/td] [td]Glasses

Televisi[/td] [td]TV

Telepon[/td] [td]Telephone

If you are traveller and need some useful traveling nouns, go check Indonesian Traveling Phrases and learn them in hours! You can also learn how to speak and communicate in Indonesian language for your traveling purpose. It is super duper useful!

2. Pronoun

Pronoun may acts like an alpha in a sentence. It works as a head. MasteringBahasa has discussed about pronouns in our article of 5 Types of Indonesian Pronouns. Here is a quick view. If you want to learn how to use them, go ahead and check the article!

English[/th] [th]Formal[/th] [th]Informal[/th] [th]Informal Possesive

I[/td] [td]Saya[/td] [td]Aku[/td] [td]-ku

You[/td] [td]Anda[/td] [td]Kamu[/td] [td]-mu

He/She/It[/td] [td]Beliau[/td] [td]Dia[/td] [td]-nya

We (inclusive)[/td] [td]Kita[/td] [td]Kita[/td] [td]-

We (exclusive)[/td] [td]Kami[/td] [td]Kami[/td] [td]-

You (Plural)[/td] [td]Kalian[/td] [td]Kalian[/td] [td]-

They[/td] [td]Mereka[/td] [td]Mereka[/td] [td]-

3. Adjectives

Adjectives is verb’s, noun’s, and pronoun’s friend. We have discussed about adjectives in Lists of Indonesian Adjectives. Here is a quick view for adjective!

Ajektiva[/th] [th]Adjetive

Bagus[/td] [td]Good

Buruk[/td] [td]Bad

Baik[/td] [td]Kind

Nakal[/td] [td]Naughty

Cantik[/td] [td]Beautiful

Tampan[/td] [td]Handsome

Jelek[/td] [td]Ugly

Lucu[/td] [td]Funny

Imut[/td] [td]Adorable

Indah[/td] [td]Majestic

Enak[/td] [td]Delicious

Pahit[/td] [td]Bitter

Manis[/td] [td]Sweet

Bahagia[/td] [td]Happy

Sedih[/td] [td]Sad

4. Verb

If pronoun works as a head of a sentence, verb works as the heart of the sentence. We have several articles that discussed about verb: Indonesian Grammar Structures, Basic Indonesian Vocabulary, and Indonesian Slang Words. But here is a table of verb that is too common:

Verba[/th] [th]Verb

Makan[/td] [td]To Eat

Minum[/td] [td]To Drink

Membaca[/td] [td]To read

Menonton[/td] [td]To watch

Menulis[/td] [td]To write

Mengetik[/td] [td]To Type

Duduk[/td] [td]To sit

Memasak[/td] [td]To cook

Membangun[/td] [td]To build

Berjelajah[/td] [td]To explore

Berbelanja[/td] [td]To shop

Membeli[/td] [td]To buy

Menjual[/td] [td]To sell

Menghias[/td] [td]To Decorate

Berbicara[/td] [td]To Speak

Loads of verbs need affixations to combine them with nouns and pronouns. If you need to learn about affixations, we have easy-to-learn articles of Indonesian Prefixes, Indonesian Prefixes and Suffixes, and Indonesian Infixes! They contain examples too, so you can learn them easily in days!

5. Adverb

Adverb is the lungs of the sentence. We have discussed about adverb in 5 Types of Indonesian Adverbs. Here is a quick examples of Indonesian Adverbs!

Adverbia[/th] [th]Adverb

Besok[/td] [td]Tomorrow

Lusa[/td] [td]The Day After Tomorrow

Kemarin[/td] [td]Yesterday

(Dengan) Sedih[/td] [td]Sadly

(Dengan) Bahagia[/td] [td]Happily

(Dengan) Bersemangat[/td] [td]Excitedly

Selalu[/td] [td]Always

Sering[/td] [td]Often

Jarang[/td] [td]Seldom

6. Preposition

Preposition works as joints in a sentence . We have discussed about Indonesian preposition in our article of Indonesian Prepositions. Here we are going to give you a quick example but if you need to learn about Indonesia prepositions fully, please check the full article!

[tr] [td]Mengenai[/td] [td]About [/td] [/tr]

[tr] [td]Tentang[/td] [td]About[/td] [/tr]

[tr] [td]Soal[/td] [td]About[/td] [/tr]

[tr] [td] Menuju[/td] [td]Towards[/td] [/tr]

[tr] [td] Ke Arah[/td] [td]Towards[/td] [/tr]

[tr] [td] Seperti[/td] [td]Like[/td] [/tr]

[tr] [td] Tidak Seperti[/td] [td]Unlike[/td] [/tr]

Di bawah[/td] [td]Below[/td] [/tr]

[tr] [td]Di belakang[/td] [td]Behind[/td] [/tr]

[tr] [td]Di samping[/td] [td]Beside[/td] [/tr]

[tr] [td] Di Depan[/td] [td]In front of[/td] [/tr]

[tr] [td] Di dalam[/td] [td]Inside[/td] [/tr]

7. Conjunction

Conjunction is the bone of a paragraph. Usually it is applied between sentences.

Konjungsi[/th] [th]Conjunction

Tapi[/td] [td]But

Namun / Akan Tetapi[/td] [td]However

Jadi[/td] [td]So

Oleh sebab itu[/td] [td]Therefore

Lalu / Kemudian[/td] [td]Then

Those are only simple conjunctions. If you need something more challenging conjunctions, you can check Lists of Indonesian Conjunctions. Since we provide examples too, it should be easy-breezy to learn them in short time!

8. Interjection

This works as the mouth in a sentence. It express “the feeling” contained in the sentence. Stay tune in MasteringBahasa to check them out! But here are some common Indonesian interjections!

Interjeksi[/th] [th]Interjection

Aduh[/td] [td]Ouch

Ha?[/td] [td]Huh?

Capek deh…[/td] [td]What a pain in the butt

Lelah…[/td] [td]I am tired

Hore!![/td] [td]Hooray!!

Sial![/td] [td]Crap!

Waduh![/td] [td]Oh no!

We can use slangs as interjections too! We have Indonesian Slang Words and How to Say It article so kindly check them out!

So those are quick review about Indonesian Part Of Speech. But do we need to use all of them in once? Of course, no! If you had check our article of Indonesian Word Formation then you should understand that there are kind of incomplete sentences, known as “Kalimat Tidak Sempurna”. Usually, a sentence in Indonesian can be called as a complete sentence if they contain Subject + Verb + Object + Adverb (Subyek + Predikat + Obyek + Keterangan). Since this article is about speech, so let’s have an example of speech!

Below is an example of a transferred students named Andi who is introducing himself:

Andi:[/th] [th]Halo![/th] [th]Nama[/th] [th]saya[/th] [th]Andi.

[/td] [td]Interjection[/td] [td]Noun[/td] [td]Pronoun[/td][td]Noun

(Hello, my name is Andi)

Andi:[/th] [th]Saya[/th] [th]berasal[/th] [th]dari[/th] [th]Surabaya.

[/td] [td]Pronoun[/td] [td]Verb[/td] [td]Preposition[/td][td]Adverb (of Place)

(I came from Surabaya)

Andi:[/th] [th]Saya[/th] [th]menjadi[/th] [th]murid[/th] [th]pindahan[/th][th]karena[/th][th]ayah[/th][th]saya[/th][th]dimutasi[/th][th]ke sini.

[/td] [td]Pronoun[/td] [td]Verb[/td] [td]Noun[/td][td]Adverb[/td][td]Conjunction[/td][td]Noun[/td][td](Possesive)Pronoun[/td][td](Passive) Verb[/td][td]Adverb (Of Place)

(I am a transfer student because my father is mutated here.)

Andi:[/th] [th]Ayah[/th] [th]saya[/th] [th]adalah[/th] [th]anggota[/th][th]TNI angkatan Udara.

[/td] [td]Noun[/td] [td](Possesive) Pronoun[/td] [td](To be) Verb[/td][td]Noun[/td][td]Adverb

(My father is a Indonesian Air Force Army)
*TNI = Tentara Nasional Indonesia (National Indonesian Army)

Andi:[/th] [th]Saya[/th] [th]menyukai[/th] [th]permainan[/th] [th]Futsal[/th][th]dan[/th][th]di[/th][th]sekolah[/th][th]lama, [/th][th]saya[/th][th]adalah[/th][th]penjaga gawang.

[/td] [td]Pronoun[/td] [td]Verb[/td] [td]Adverb[/td][td]Noun[/td][td]Conjunction[/td][td]Preposition[/td][td]Noun[/td][td]Adverb (of Condition)[/td][td]Pronoun[/td][td](To be) Verb[/td][td]Noun

(I like football game, and in my previous school I was a goal keeper.)

Andi:[/th] [th]Saya[/th] [th]berencana[/th] [th]untuk[/th] [th]mendaftar[/th][th]klub[/th][th]futsal[/th][th]di[/th][th]sekolah [/th][th]ini[/th][th]sebagai[/th][th]penjaga gawang.

[/td] [td]Pronoun[/td] [td]Verb[/td] [td]Conjunction[/td][td]Verb[/td][td]Adverb[/td][td]Noun[/td][td]Preposition[/td][td]Noun (of Places)[/td][td]Adverb[/td][td](To be) Verb[/td][td]Noun

(I am planning to register to a football club in this school as a goalkeeper.)

Andi:[/th] [th]Matematika[/th] [th]adalah[/th] [th]mata pelajaran[/th] [th]yang[/th][th]paling[/th][th]saya[/th][th]sukai[/th][th]karena[/th][th]tidak[/th][th]membutuhkan[/th][th]banyak[/th][th]hapalan.

[/td] [td]Noun[/td] [td](To be) Verb[/td] [td]Noun[/td][td]Conjunction[/td][td]Adverb[/td][td]Pronoun[/td][td](Passive) Verb[/td][td]Conjunction[/td][td]Adverb[/td][td]Verb[/td][td]Adverb[/td][td]Noun.

(Mathematics is my favorite subject because it does not require lots of role.)

Andi:[/th] [th]Saya[/th] [th]menyukai[/th] [th]nasi goreng,[/th][th]hehe.

[/td] [td]Pronoun[/td] [td] Verb[/td] [td]Noun[/td][td]Interjection

(I like fried rice)

Andi:[/th] [th]Saya[/th] [th]berharap[/th] [th]teman-teman[/th][th]sekalian[/th][th]menyukai[/th][th]saya[/th][th]sebagaimana[/th][th]saya[/th][th]menyukai[/th][th]nasi goreng,[/th][th]ya!

[/td] [td]Pronoun[/td] [td] Verb[/td] [td]Noun[/td][td]Adverb[/td][td]Verb[/td][td]Pronoun[/td][td]Conjunction[/td][td]Pronoun[/td][td]Verb[/td][td]Noun[/td][td]Interjection

(I hope all of you guys will like me as much I like fried rice, okay!)

If you notice how Andi introduces himself, some of the sentences don’t use all of the part of speech. But it is okay, don’t you see? The sentences are still understandable. Though we have said that verb is the heart, interjection is the mouth, preposition is the joints, and so on, but we can’t see that one part is more important than another. We can’t see any sentence like human body. However, some parts express the main idea of the sentence. When Andi said, as an example, “Saya menyukai nasi goreng, hehe” (I like fried rice, teehee), the main idea is not the verb “menyukai” (like).  The main idea is the noun “nasi goreng” (fried rice). But the verb “menyukai” (like) is still the heart of the sentence. Why? Let’s say we remove the verb. It will be “Saya nasi goreng, hehe.” (I (am) fried rice, teehee). The main idea is not expressed without the verb of “menyukai” (like)! And even the interjection is optional, it makes the sentence more interesting. Imagine if the interjection is gone, it just like “Saya menyukai nasi goreng” (I like fried rice) and that is it!

Every part of speech is important. Though they sometimes are used and sometimes aren’t. When they are used, it expresses the idea more. When they are not used, the idea is still there and it is simpler. So never neglect any part of speech!

But now this is the end of the Indonesian part of speech article. Thank you so, so, so much for joining us again today. We will never grow without your support! We hope you enjoy our articles and will always stay tune in MasteringBahasa. Please share this article to your Twitter, Google+, and Facebook if this article helps you! Terima kasih! Sampai jumpa lagi!