Indonesian Auxiliary Verbs – Formula – Example

Auxiliary verbs or known more as kata bantu in Indonesia, are words that sometimes occur on its own. Sometimes, kata bantu also occurs in front of other verbs. The additional of kata bantu gives extra dimension of meaning of the verb. It explains the reaction or aspect of the action does.

Also learn Indonesian conversation examples

Indonesian Auxiliary Verbs

Before, you learn about Indonesian Verbs.In general, kata bantu only comes in one form or root form and mostly never change. Since words in bahasa Indonesia are formed due to the addition of affixes, some kata bantu are also attached with it. Kata bantu which is attached with affixes are no longer consider as auxiliary verbs because it has different meaning. Take a look at below examples of kata bantu.

1. Akan – will, going to

  • Kami akan berkunjung minggu depan (We will give a visit next week)
  • Saya akan pergi (I will go)

2. Ingin – want

  • Saya ingin membeli buku (I want to buy book)
  • Dia ingin jadi guru (she wants to be a teacher)

3. Mau – want (informal)

  • Dia tidak mau menjadi yang kedua (he does not want to be the second)
  • Saya mau membeli jus mangga (I want to buy mango juice)

Related: Indonesian question words order

4. Telah – have/had

  • Dia telah menjadi guru selama 2 tahun (he had been a teacher for 2 years)
  • Dia telah bekerja sebagai satpam selama setahun (he had been working as security for a year)

5. Sudah – have/had

  • Nico sudah mengunci pintu (Nico has locked the house’s door)
  • Hani sudah menyelesaikan tugas rumah sebelum ibu datang (Hani had done the home work before mother came)

6. Pernah – have

  • Saya pernah menjadi pegawai bank (I have once become bank officer)
  • Rambut bob pernah menjadi trend di tahun 70 (Bob hairstyle had once become a trend in the 70s)

7. Masih – still

  • Ibu masih menunggu ayah meski sudah malam (mom is still waiting for dad even though it is midnight)
  • Adik saya masih sekolah (my brother is still at school)

8. Bisa – can

  • Setelah membayar, kamu bisa menjadi anggota di klub (after pay the fee, you can be a member)
  • Kamu bisa mengirim surat ini setelah hari Senin (You can send this letter after Monday)

9. Dapat – can

  • Dia tidak bisa datang (he cannot come)
  • Anak dibawah umur tidak dapat membeli rokok (children underage cannot buy cigarette)

Also learn about Indonesian Verb To Be

10. Boleh – may

  • Rina boleh ikut ke perkumpulan (Rina may come to gathering)
  • Selain petugas dilarang masuk (except staff, no one may enter the room)

11. Ikut – follow

  • Kita semua ikut ibu ke Jakarta (We all follow mother to Jakarta)

12. Harus – must

  • Semua harus memakai seragam lengkap pada hari Senin (Everyone should wear complete uniform on Monday)
  • Kita harus bisa menjadi yang terbaik (we must become the best)  

13. Suka – like

  • Lia suka makan donat (Lia likes eating doughnut)
  • Kami suka pergi ke pantai (We like going to the beach)

14. Senang – like

  • Dia senang main game (he likes playing games)
  • Dia senang membeli buku (she likes buying books)

Also learn Indonesian verbs conjugation

Notes about Indonesian Auxiliary Verbs:

The examples above are general use of auxiliary verbs in Indonesia. It should come after verbs but in some cases, a sentence can have more than one kata bantu.

  • Bagaimanapun juga, kamu harus bisa menjadi seorang dokter (however, you should have become a doctor)
  • Dengan usaha yang keras, kamu masih bisa meraih cita-cita (with hard work, you still can pursuit your goals)
  • Lia harus bisa memasak karena akan tinggal di asrama (Lia must able to cook because she will live in dorm)

Indonesian Auxiliary Verbs and Affixes 

In another cases, auxiliary verbs are also attached with affixes. It can be prefix, infix, suffix, or the combination. As with other verbs, the addition may change the meaning of the words including kata bantu. Also learn forming Indonesian words using affixes.

1. Prefix ke- and suffix –an

Harus, keharusan – sudah menjadi keharusan bila karyawan harus datang tepat waktu (it is a must for every staff to come on time)

2. Prefix se-

Sudah (have), sesudah (after) – sesudah makan kamu harus cuci tangan (after eating, you have to wash hands)

3. Prefis se- and suffix –nya

Harus (must), seharusnya (it should have) – Seharusnya kamu bisa menjadi juara kelas (you should have become the top rank in class)

The use of kata bantu should not make you confuse. You have to remember that every word with affixes addition may have different meaning from the root words. Be sure to always check dictionary to find out the difference.

Also related: Indonesian grammar exercise

In English, you may not use more than one auxiliary verb in a sentence. But in bahasa, it is possible to use more than just one kata bantu in one sentence. This part can be tricky, but as soon as you get the basic pattern, learning bahasa will be easier. You just need to use the verbs in the right context.